Menstrual cycle Right age. What is menarche?

Menstrual cycle is defined as cyclic events that take place in a rhythmic fashion during the reproductive period of a woman’s life.

Every girl should know about menarche. Menarche is the first period of your life. When girls has passed her puberty age and then turn into maturity age menstrual cycle has started . First menstruation called menarche.

Menstrual cycle right age

Menstrual cycle starts at the age of 11 to 15 years, which marks the onset of puberty. There is no definite age of the first period. It depends on her mother. When her mother first menstruated so daughter first menstruation date almost be there.

As time goes our life style also changing. One of the most common resion girl has started her mensuration early age. 

In earlier time girl used to have menstruation at the age of around 15-16.

The commencement of menstrual cycle is called menarche. Menstrual cycle ceases at the age of 45 to 50 years. Permanent cessation of menstrual cycle in old age is called menopause.

Myth about Menarche/ Menstrual

Can Menarche affect of hight- There is no relation between height and menstrual cycle. Menarche doesn’t affect of the final height. Final height depend upon our life style and physical activity and it is also depends on her parents height. If her parents height is short there is highly chances to their children height could be short.

Should girl take a bath during menstruation or not? – 

This is an ancient tradition, which even in today’s times, many orthodox people believe it. Rather, during the period, girls should take care of cleanliness even more. She can save many disease. Hygiene is more important during  menstruation. So please take a daily bath and maintain your hygiene  this a normal process of our body.

Always use senetory pad doesn’t use any cloth if you are using cloth make sure it is germ free. Many circumstances pad is not available or everyone couldn’t buy pad so please use germ free and clean cloth. Don’t reuse it. If you don’t do this it can causes many infection.

Change During Menarche or menstrual cycle.

During each menstrual cycle, series of changes occur in ovary and accessory sex organs.

These changes are divided into 4 groups:

1. Ovarian changes

2. Uterine changes

3. Vaginal changes

 4. Changes in cervix.

All these changes take place simultaneously.

OVARIAN CHANGES DURING MENSTRUAL CYCLE

Changes in the ovary during each menstrual cycle occur in two phases:

A. Follicular phase

B. Luteal phase.

Ovulation occurs in between these two phases.

FOLLICULAR PHASE

Follicular phase extends from the 5th day of the cycle until the time of ovulation, which takes place on 14th day. Maturation of ovum with development of ovarian follicles takes place during this phase.

OVULATION.

Ovulation is the process by which the graafian follicle ruptures with consequent discharge of ovum into the abdominal cavity. It is influenced by LH. Ovulation occurs on 14th day of menstrual cycle in a normal cycle of 28 days. The ovum enters the fallopian tube.

LUTEAL PHASE

Luteal phase extends between 15th and 28th day c menstrual cycle. During this phase, corpus luteum is developed and hence this phase is called luteal phase.

UTERINE CHANGES DURING

MENSTRUAL CYCLE

During each menstrual cycle, along with ovarian changes, uterine changes also occur simultaneously. Uterine changes occur in three phases:

1. Menstrual phase

2. Proliferative phase

3. Secretory phase.

MENSTRUAL PHASE

After ovulation, if pregnancy does not occur, the thickened endometrium is shed or desquamated. This desquamated endometrium is expelled out through vagina along with blood and tissue fluid.

The process of shedding and exit of uterine lining along with blood and fluid is called menstruation or menstrual bleeding. It lasts for about 4 to 5 days.

This period is called menstrual phase or menstrual period. It is also called menses, emmenia or catamenia.

The day when bleeding starts is considered first day of the menstrual cycle.

Two days before the onset of bleeding, that is on 26th or 27th day of the previous cycle, there is a sudden reduction in the release of estrogen and progesterone from ovary.

Decreased level of these two hormones is responsible for menstruation.

Proliferative phase

Extends usually from 5th to 14th day of menstruation, i.e. between the day when menstruation stops and the day of ovulation. It corresponds to the follicular phase of ovarian cycle.

At the end of menstrual phase, only a thin layer (1 mm) of endometrium remains, as most of the endo metrial stroma is desquamated.

SECRETORY PHASE

Secretory phase extends between 15th and 28th day of the menstrual cycle, i.e. between the day of ovulation and the day when menstruation of next cycle commences.

REGULATION OF MENSTRUAL CYCLE

Regulation of menstrual cycle is a complex process that is carried out by a well organized regulatory system.

The regulatory system is a highly integrated system, which includes hypothalamus, anterior pituitary and ovary with its growing follicle. In the whole scenario, the growing follicle has a vital role to play.

ABNORMAL MENSTRUATION

MENSTRUAL SYMPTOMS

Menstrual symptoms are the unpleasant symptoms with discomfort, which appear in many women during menstruation. These symptoms are due to hormonal withdrawal, leading to cramps in uterine muscle before or during menstruation.

Common Menstrual Symptoms

1. Abdominal pain

2. Dysmenorrhea (menstrual pain)

3. Headache Occasional nausea and         vomiting

5. Irritability

6. Depression

7.Migraine (neurological disorder, characterized by intense headache causing disability

PREMENSTRUAL SYNDROME

Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is the symptom of stress that appears before the onset of menstruation.

It is also called premenstrual stress syndrome, premenstrual stress or premenstrual tension. It lasts for about 4 to 5 days prior to menstruation. Symptoms appear due to salt and water retention caused by estrogen

Common Feature

1. Mood swin

2. Anxiety

3. Irritability

4. Emotional instability

5. Headache

6. Depression

7. Constipation

8. Abdominal cramping

9. Bloating (abdominal swelling)

ABNORMAL MENSTRUATION

1. Amenorrhea:

Absence of menstruation

2. Hypomenorrhea:

Decreased menstrual bleeding.

3. Menorrhagia:

Excess menstrual bleeding

4. Oligomenorrhea:

Decreased frequency of menstrual

bleeding

5. Polymenorrhea:

Increased frequency of menstruation

6. Dysmenorrhea:

Menstruation with pain

7. Metrorrhagia:

Uterine bleeding in between  menstruations.

ANOVULATORY CYCLE

Anovulatory cycle is the menstrual cycle in which ovulation does not occur.

The menstrual bleeding occurs but the release of ovum does not occur. It is common during puberty and few years before menopause.

When it occurs before menopause, it is called perimenopause. If it occurs very often during childbearing years, it leads to infertility.

Common Causes

1.Hormonal imbalance

2.Prolonged strenuous exercise program

3.Eating disorders

4.Hypothalamic dysfunctions 5. Tumors in pituitary gland, ovary or adrenal gland

6.Long-term use of drugs like steroidal oral contraceptives.

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