Nephrotic Syndrome Diet in Children, (Kidney Disease)

What is Nephrotic Syndrome?

Nephrotic syndrome is a kidney disorder in which the filter holes of the kidney become enlarged and leakage too much protein into the urine. This can occur in kidney disease because of damages the nephrons (filtering units). Water retention occur in the body due to leaking of protein into the urine.

Nephrotic Syndrome

Person who has nephrotic syndrome, pass so much protein in urine, low levels of protein in your blood can cause edema (fluid retention) or swelling, usually in the  lower extremity and face most common on eyes.

High blood pressure is very common  in Nephrotic Patient, and higher than normal fat and cholesterol levels in the blood.

Nephrotic syndrome is a common disease all over the world

Overall incidence is reported to be 2040/million population

In USA & in Europe, the incidence is 1013/million children under 16 years of age.

In the Indian subcontinent the incidence is estimated as 90-100/million population

Around 1 in every 50,000 children are diagnosed with the condition each year.

Diet for Nephrotic Syndrome Children

A low-sodium, low fat, low cholesterol diet is also recommended with nephrotic syndrome. Too much salt can cause edema, and high blood pressure. High amounts of fat should be avoided as the cholesterol and triglyceride levels tend to be high in patients with nephrotic syndrome. To help manage this condition, it’s important to understand what is best to eat.

How to manage five main component in Nephrotic diet?

1- Carbohydrate Diet:- In Nephrotic Children recommended complex carbohydrate diet, because the nephrotic children are taking steroid treatment if the patient taken free carbohydrate diet heavy chances to gain weight more fast.

If your child is on steroids, his appetite is also very high and if you start giving a free carbohydrate diet, then his weight may increase. So avoid high sugar food like beverage, ice-cream, white sugar. Complex carbohydrates are found in foods such as peas, beans, whole grains, and vegetables

2- Fat:- Now Let’s come to fat because your diet is also become increase in it and some medicines also give in nephrotic syndrome that may increase patient cholesterol level. It is important to avoid these type of food that will increase the cholesterol when the leakage of protein into the urine doesn’t stop.

You should avoid saturated fat, avoid fried food, avoid desi ghee.

you can use unsaturated fat and oil like olive, canola, safflower, groundnut oil, Palm oil, Coconut oil, Soya bean Oil this can be use for nephrotic children. You cam use small amount of ghee not too much.

3- Protein- This is the most misunderstood. In nephrotic syndrome daily leakage of protein in urine around 5g to 15g. That indicate there is a lack of Protein in the blood, due to which there is swelling in the body. If patient take less amount of protein, the swelling will increase and the risk factor will also increase. Some time the problem can be very risky the patient has to take a proteins injection due to take less protein in his/her diet

Measurement of the Proteins 

If a patient is leaking 5grams of protein daily, then we have to suggest 5gram extra intake daily. Suppose if your child is 15kg recommended protein is 1.2g/per/kg (only for Children), your child leaking 5gram protein in urine per day, daily diet should be 23gram per day. 

Vitamin and Minerals:- The body is swollen and water retention is happening, so the less salt we take in it  the better, you can use pink salt, low sodium salt. You should eat your with low salt. You should avoid pickle, Ketchup. extra salt strictly avoided in nephrotic syndrome because the more salt you use in your food, the more it will swell. Most important aspect of diet in nephrotic syndrome is salt restriction.

In nephrotic appetite is going to be high so extra vitamins is not needed it sufficient in your daily diet. 

Calcium:-  In nephrotic, it is necessary to take a calcium rich diet because there are medicine in which weaken a bones. Your doctor may be prescribe a calcium medicine also with nephrotic medication. You should take a lot of vegetable and fruits, there is no restriction of phosphorus, no restriction in potassium also.

So overall diet in nephrotic syndrome is low salt normal diet with low fat just because of high cholesterol.

You should give your child some fruits and nuts before every meal because if your child is hungry, then he will eat unhealthy things which will be harmful for him, so you have to take more care of your child’s diet

Some food You can take in NS

Fruit Like (apples, blueberries, pears, pineapple, peaches, strawberries, mandarin orange, passion fruit),

Vegetables (green beans, lettuce, bean sprouts, green onion, cucumber, cabbage, green peppers, corn, cauliflower),

Low-sodium canned vegetables, potatoes, rice, low sodium bread, pasta, unsalted snacks (nuts, popcorn),

Low salt cottage cheese, low fat milk

Symptoms of Nephrotic syndrome.

1-Swelling – the low level of protein in the blood reduces the flow of water from body tissues back into the blood vessels, leading to swelling (edema). Swelling is usually first noticed around the eyes, then around the lower legs and the rest of the body.

2-Infections – antibodies are a specialized group of proteins in the blood that help to fight infection. When these are lost, children are much more likely to get infections.

3-Urine changes – occasionally, the high levels of protein being passed into the urine can cause it to become frothy. Some children with nephrotic syndrome may also pass less urine than usual during relapses.

4- Blood clots – important proteins that help prevent the blood clotting can be passed out in the urine of children with nephrotic syndrome. This can increase their risk of potentially serious blood clots. During a relapse, the blood also becomes more concentrated, which can lead to clotting.

These problems tend to be more common in adults with nephrotic syndrome.

Although nephrotic syndrome can affect people of any age, it’s usually first diagnosed in children aged between 2 and 5 years old. It affects more boys than girls.

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